Artists Books
Penny Nii, Daughters Revisited
Penny Nii, Daughters Revisited

After I made “Daughters of Time” I collected more photographs of the women in my family to create this book.

The photomontage contains great-grandmother from father’s side, grandmothers from mother’s and father’s sides, mother, two sisters, two daughters, two nieces and myself. The photographs span in time from 1910 to 2003.

These women share many of the same genes, and we resemble each other in some ways at different times in our lives. In particular, there is a small set of genes, the mitochondria, which is passed along only through the mother. Looking at the ancestral tree Shizu, Kame, Atsuko, Hisako, Kei, Fumiko, Sheri, Karin and Miki have the same mitochondria. Haruki has different mitochondria, since she inherited hers from her mother’s side.

The complete DNA sequence of Chromosome 21 covers the book. Smallest of the 23 human chromosomes, Chromosome 21 contains 12 sequences totaling 33,606,299 bases (A, T, G, C). The sequence begins at the top left corner of the front cover.

This book would not have been possible without all the daughters who helped gather the photographs. Seven editions were made for them.

Penny Nii, Stanford
(Family tree updated November 2004.)

8.5″h x 3.25″w closed
8.5″h x 35″w opened

Photomontage of multiple generations of women in my family.

Accordion book with hard cover.


Photographs scanned and manipulated in Photoshop; printed on washi paper; translucent fabric applied on the cover over printed paper.



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